Sunday, February 01, 2015

What is the Microbiome Good for?

How Inhibit Ammonia Production in Large Intestines?
"In general, the treatment of [excess ammonia] has as common elements the reduction of protein in the diet, removal of excess ammonia and replacement of intermediates missing from the urea cycle."

Eating large amounts of protein feeds harmful bacteria: "Protein fermentation by human faecal bacteria in the absence of sugars not only leads to the formation of hazardous metabolic products, but also to the possible proliferation of harmful bacteria [such as Clostridium, Enterococcus, Shigella and Escherichia coli]."

text below from:

Increasing the amounts of alimentary proteins results in a spectacular increase of the luminal and faecal ammonia [92]. In humans, the ammonia luminal concentration progressively increases from the ascending to the descending colon [93] in accordance with a higher rate of protein fermentation in
the distal than in the proximal colon. The two environmental characteristics of the proximal colon (low pH and high carbohydrate) explain the reduced net production of ammonia. [13]

Large amounts of ammonia can be absorbed through the large intestine mucosa [96]. Ammonia has been considered as a metabolic troublemaker since this compound is able to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner the mitochondrial oxygen consumption [104]. In addition, high millimolar concentrations of ammonia inhibit short-chain fatty acid oxidation [105,106] in colonic epithelial

Also of concern is H2S:  H2S is a bacterial metabolite produced through fermentation of sulfur containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine). Interestingly, there is a correlation between the level of meat intake and the level of faecal excretion of sulfide. [110]  H2S at excessive concentrations inhibits colonic epithelial cell respiration [120] and provokes genomic DNA damage [121], [122].

What to do?
inhibit large intestine production of ammonia!
Lactulose (comalose) would help acidify colon, feed good bacteria:

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